Introduction: Growth and the environment

Economic growth is a central theme in economic thinking and it is usually presented as a social good - a necessity for social development.

Biophysical limits to growth

One of the consequences of the biophysical perspective on the economy is the emphasis on limits to growth. In the biophysical perspective, the Earth…

Production result – the ’real cake’

According to ecological economics, there is no doubt that there are limits to growth in biophysical terms. But does this also mean that there are…

The growth dilemma

Despite various criticisms, it is clear that economic growth, measured as GDP growth, is still the key objective of economic policy.